Simulator of Electromagnetic Measurement While Drilling (EM-MWD) for Vertical and Horizontal Wells The simulator of electromagnetic measurement while drilling (EM-MWD) is based on the numerical solution of Maxwell equations. Based on the parameters of provided transmitter, well configuration and the resistivity log it will calculate the useful signal received on the surface, allowing the client to determine feasibility of utilizing EM-MWD on a given well and to select the optimal transmitter and receiver parameters. There are separate versions of the simulator for vertical wells and for horizontal and inclined wells.
Simulator of Tripping Operations The simulator allows to determine the hydrodynamic component of pressure at any point in borehole during tripping, accounting for borehole geometry and drilling column composition, fluid compressibility (with borehole walls elasticity), mud features and rheology, drilling column velocity, acceleration and deceleration. It can be used to determine optimal mode of column tripping in order to decrease hydraulic fracturing risk, reduce the invasion zone and prevent borehole wall erosion. The simulator allows to significantly decrease the possibility of accidents while drilling and to accelerate borehole building and significantly increase efficiency and safety of drilling
 Simulator of Technology for Optimization of Production (TOP) This method allows receiving maximum current oil rate, extending life of the well and increasing its oil recovery index by keeping current bottomhole pressure on the optimal level, which is continuously calculated using a special mathematical model, and depends on current properties of the system well-formation and properties of formation and fluid. Maximum oil rate is achieved by maintaining formation in such a mode, as to minimize negative effects in the bottomhole area, which appear due to free gas, which separates from oil, blocking oil flow, and due to forming of zones of sluggish, viscous degassed oil. Application of this method also decelerates pressure drop in formation by lessening premature exiting of gas from formation, and decreases current value of GOR. This leads to extended life of well and increased ultimate production index. The method applies to all oil production methods, such as fountain, gas-lift and pump, and allows receiving millions of additional barrels of oil without drilling any extra wells or building any additional expensive platforms for offshore wells.
Simulator of Borehole/Reservoir System for Formation Tests and Production Optimization We have several versions of this simulator: - Rod pump - Centrifugal pump - Fountain mode The simulator allows accounting for interaction between the reservoir of complex structure (including layered or fractured) and a borehole with multiphase fluid flow. The third element of the system is a two-phase choke, a rod pump or a down-hole centrifugal pump. The simulator has about 30 parameters controlling its calculations. It allows investigating and creating methods for well production tests, both on tubing or logging cable. The simulator allows investigation of influence of 1) reservoir properties upon apparent permeability, 2) degassing of oil in the formation upon phase permeability, 3) quality and extent of perforation upon results of measurements, 4) fluid exchange between layers upon measurements, 5) presence of high permeability layer upon depression value near bottom hole, 6) influence of a choke or a pump upon functioning of the whole system etc. For both pump-assisted or fountain production the simulators allow to find an optimum regime of well exploitation to increase production of the well. For fountain mode it means changing choke diameter, proper perforation and maintaining correct flow rate. For pump-assisted production this means picking the optimal location, productivity and inlet pressure. The simulator may also be used for theoretical researches bound with injection wells and hydraulic fracturing. The solution is presented in graphical form on the screen being a set of izobars inside the reservoir, diagrams of bottom hole pressure and flow versus time. Optionally user can enable transit pressure curves to be processed according to Horner’s method.
Simulator of Pressure Loss in Circulative System During Drilling or Cementing The simulator allows to calculate pressure losses in borehole during drilling and cementing. Approximation of rheological characteristic measured by a viscosimeter with two-power and polynomial model of non-Newtonian liquid, provides best precision among similar methods of pressure computation, because the polynomial model in computations uses full information received from multivelocity viscosimeters. Z-criterion, usually used for a non-Neutonian liquid power model is used in the simulator for determining the flow type. The borehole circulating system channel consists of tube sections of round and annular profile with a constant area, during calculations their flow type is determined. Then simulator computes pressure losses for two-power and polynomial models of liquid flow. Precision benefits from using polynomial model are most significant for high viscosity muds with complicated rheology.
Simulator of Acoustic 2D Navigation The acoustic source, mounted on a drillstring, generates a pressure pulse. This excites both tube waves within the borehole and acoustic waves in surrounding formation. The resulting acoustic waves propagate through the formation, experiencing partial reflection on existing acoustic boundaries. Upon reaching borehole walls the reflected waves excite corresponding tube waves, which are being registered by receivers mounted on the drillstring. While incident and reflected waves propagate in the formation, tube waves propagate within borehole reflecting from stabilizers and the bottom of the hole, disturbing reception of the informative signal as well as exciting additional waves in formation. Applications: - Acoustic navigation systems are used for determining location of the bit relative to formation boundaries during horizontal and directional drilling. - Simulator helps studying physical processes and interpreting the measured results. - Helps to determine requirements to the source and receivers. - Assists in finding the optimal parameters of the tool. - Helps to optimize relative locations of transmitter and receiver to minimize signal disturbance.
Simulator of Gas Kick Control This quasi-stationary simulator models the upward movement of non-homogeneous gas-liquid packet and takes into consideration: - Presence of a formation with abnormally high pressure. - Different propagation velocities for gas and liquid. - Compression waves (but not not elastic waves). - Allows controlling borehole pressure by changing diameter of flow choke and changing pump output rate and mud density. There is a version of this simulator that models the uncontrollable fountain occurring if the gas kick is not killed.
Simulator of Thermodynamics During Washing and Cementing The simulator allows computing temperature changes in drilling tubes, annular space and surrounding rock during washing and cementing. It accounts for varied geometry of drilling tubes and borehole, mud properties and volumetric rate, thermophysical properties and geothermal coefficient of rock surrounding the borehole, presence of formation with different thermophysical parameters of the rock. The simulator allows quick and precise determination of the temperature distribution in the system vs. time, depending on a number of system parameters. It can prevent a number of dangerous complications during washing and cementing and takes into account the influence of temperature on mud and cement.